Piper nigrum (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine of the Piperaceae family that is cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is normally dried and used as a spice and seasoning ingredient. Fruit is a dark red drupe (stonefruit) with a solitary pepper seed inside a stone that is about 5 mm (0.20 in) across (fresh and completely grown). A variety of peppercorns, as well as the ground pepper they yield, are referred to as “pepper,” “green pepper,” or “white pepper” depending on the color of the unripe fruit they are made from (ripe fruit seeds).
There is a large population of Malabar peppers in India, as well as in other tropical locations, where they are farmed extensively.
For centuries, peppercorns have been ground, dried, and cooked as a spice and medicinal. One of the most widely used and most widely traded spices in the world is black pepper. The chemical component piperine, which is distinct from the capsaicin found in chili peppers, is responsible for its spiciness. It is a common seasoning in Western cuisine, commonly used in conjunction with salt and readily available in shakers or mills on dining tables.